ullas kunder

Designer & Developer

Advance javascript


Thanks

I would like to express my gratitude to the following YouTube creators for their impactful videos that greatly aided my understanding of JavaScript core concepts:

  • CodeSmith (Will Sentance): "JavaScript The Hard Parts: Object Oriented Programming"
  • Kyle Simpson: "You Don't Know JS" (also available on YouTube)
  • Dave Gray: YouTube JavaScript Playlist
  • Enes Karakaş: Advanced Object Concepts (available on YouTube)

Thank you all for sharing your knowledge and helping me on my learning journey!

function outerFun() {
  let counter = 0;
  function increment() {
    counter++;
    console.log("counter:", counter);
  }
  increment();
}
outerFun();
Global Execution Context:
  - Variables:
    - outerFun: `<function reference>`
  - Function Declarations:
    - outerFun()

Execution Context of outerFun():
  - Variables:
    - counter: `0`
    - increment: `<function reference>`
  - Function Declarations:
    - increment()
  - Call Stack:
    - outerFun()

Execution Context of increment():
  - Variables:
    - (none)
  - Call Stack:
    - increment()
    - outerFun()
    - Global Execution Context

In this representation:

  • The global execution context includes the outerFun function reference.
  • When outerFun() is invoked, a new execution context for outerFun is created. It includes the counter variable initialized to 0 and the increment function reference.
  • Within the outerFun execution context, there is a call to the increment() function. This triggers the creation of a new execution context for increment.
  • The increment execution context does not have any variables specific to it.
  • The call stack keeps track of the active execution contexts. Initially, outerFun() is at the top of the call stack. When increment() is called, it is pushed onto the call stack above outerFun(), and the global execution context is at the bottom.
  • After the increment function completes its execution, its execution context is popped off the call stack.
  • Once outerFun() finishes, its execution context is also popped off the stack.
  • Finally, only the global execution context remains on the call stack.

I hope this Markdown format helps you understand the execution contexts more clearly. Let me know if you have any further questions!

function outerFun() {
  let counter = 0;
  function increment() {
    counter++;
    console.log("counter:", counter);
  }
  increment();
}
outerFun();
  1. Global Execution Context:

    • Variables:
      • outerFunction: <function reference>
      • exFun: undefined (initially uninitialized)
  2. When outerFunction() is called:

    • A new execution context is created for outerFunction.
    • The counter variable is declared and initialized to 0 in the outerFunction execution context.
    • The increment function is defined inside the outerFunction function.
    • The value of counter (0) is logged to the console.
    • The increment function is returned from outerFunction and assigned to the exFun variable.
    • The execution context of outerFunction is deleted as it has completed execution.
  3. Call Stack:

    • Initially: outerFunction() is at the top of the call stack, and the global execution context is at the bottom.
  4. When exFun() is called the first time:

    • A new execution context is created for exFun.
    • Inside exFun, it tries to access and increment counter.
    • It first looks for counter within its own execution context but doesn't find it.
    • It then looks in the outer scope, which is the global execution context, but still doesn't find counter.
    • Since counter is not found, it does not increment.
    • The execution context of exFun completes, and it is popped off the call stack.
  5. Call Stack:

    • After exFun() is called: exFun() is at the top of the call stack, and the global execution context is at the bottom.
  6. When exFun() is called the second time:

    • A new execution context is created for exFun.
    • Inside exFun, it again tries to access and increment counter.
    • As before, it looks for counter within its own execution context but doesn't find it.
    • It then looks in the outer scope, which is the global execution context, but counter was never incremented or reassigned, so it remains 0.
    • Since counter is not found, it does not increment.
    • The execution context of exFun completes, and it is popped off the call stack.
  7. Call Stack:

    • After the second exFun() call: exFun() is at the top of the call stack, and the global execution context is at the bottom.

In summary, the counter variable is not incremented because exFun tries to access it in the global execution context after the outerFunction execution context has been deleted. The value of counter is not persisted, so it remains at its initial value of 0.

Promises and Async/Await:

  • Promises: Asynchronous programming is a fundamental aspect of JavaScript. Promises provide a way to handle asynchronous operations and avoid callback hell
const fetchData = () => {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    // Simulating an asynchronous operation
    setTimeout(() => {
      const data = "One piece is real";
      if (data) {
        resolve(data);
      } else {
        reject("Error occurred");
      }
    }, 2000);
  });
};

fetchData()
  .then((data) => console.log(data))
  .catch((error) => console.error(error));
  • Async/Await: Introduced in ES2017, async/await simplifies asynchronous code even further by allowing you to write asynchronous code that looks like synchronous code
const fetchData = () => {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    setTimeout(() => {
      const data = "Some fetched data";
      if (data) {
        resolve(data);
      } else {
        reject("Error occurred");
      }
    }, 2000);
  });
};

const fetchDataAsync = async () => {
  try {
    const data = await fetchData();
    console.log(data);
  } catch (error) {
    console.error(error);
  }
};

fetchDataAsync();

Closures

  • Closures allow functions to retain access to variables from their parent scopes even after the parent function has finished executing.
const outerFunction = (outerParam) => {
  const innerFunction = (innerParam) => {
    console.log(outerParam + innerParam);
  };

  return innerFunction;
};

const closure = outerFunction(10);
closure(5); // Output: 15

Object Oriented Programming OOP ✨

4 principle:

  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism

Prototypes

The prototype is a special hidden property object that is associated with every functions and objects by default in JavaScript.

Objects in JavaScript are linked to a certain prototype, by means object can access that prototype method => Prototypal inheritance

let myArray = [11, 22, 33];
console.log(myArray.at(0));
//output: 11

/** Array.prototype is the prototype of all array objects
 * behind its calling myArray.prototype.at(2)
 **/

OOP is an enormously popular paradigm for structuring out complex code

  • Easy to add features and functionality
  • Performant (efficient in term of memory)
  • Easy for us and other developers to reason about (a clear structure)

Objects - store functions with their associated data!

const user1 = {
  name: "ullas",
  score: 2,

  increment: function () {
    user1.score++;
  },
};

user1.increment();

This is the principal of encapsulation.

Multiple way to create an object, just to get familier with few means of defining the object

Using empty object and then populate it with dot notation 🔰

Creating user2 user 'dot notation'


const user2 = {};

user2.name = 'ullas';
user2.score = 6;
user2.increment = function(){
    user2.score++;
};

// Square bracket notation [] (never used except in one condition: evaluatng what goes in ex: user2[property] property: 'name')
  • Using the built in js Object.create which will create empty object

const user3 = Object.create(null);

user3.name = 'ullas';
user3.score = 7;
user3.increment = function(){
    user3.score++;
};

! our code is getting repetitive, we are breaking our DRY principle

? What if we have milion of user....?

Champ => Functions 😁

They are helpfull in this case so we don't have to repeat the code. They are wrapping up the instructions... write once call as many time you want

Solution 1. Generate Object using a function

function userCreator(name, score){

    const newUser = { };

    newuser.name = name;
    newuser.score = score;

    newuser.increment = function(){
        newuser.score++;
    };

    return newUser;
};

const user1 = userCreator('ullas', 10)
const user2 = userCreator('kingsman', 10)


user2.increment()

! this solution is doing its task but fundamentally Unusable

Reason:

  • In global memory

    Initially:

      global memory >
      - userCreator: -[f]-
    
      - User1 ...undefined

user1 = userCreator('ullas' 10)

which create a new execuation context

  • In a local memory

      local Memory >
      - name: 'ullas'
      - score: 10
    
      - newUser: {
          name: 'ullas'
          score: 10
          increment: -[f]-
      }

    returning => newUser object

    • return out to Gloabl Memory
  • In global memory

      global memory >
      - [function userCreator()]
    
      - User1 : {
          name: 'ullas'
          score: 10
          increment: -[f]-
      }

Same with => user2, declaring user2

  • In global memory

      global memory with >
      - [function userCreator()]
    
      - user1 : {
          name: 'ullas'
          score: 10
          increment: -[f]-
      }
      - user2: ...undefined

user2 = userCreator('kingsman' 10)

which create a new execuation context

  • In a local memory

      local Memory with >
      - name: 'kingsman'
      - score: 10
    
      - newUser: {
          name: 'kingsman'
          score: 10
          increment: -[f]-
      }

    returning => newUser object

    • return out to Gloabl Memory
  • In global memory

      global memory with >
      - [function userCreator()]
    
      - user1 : {
          name: 'ullas'
          score: 10
          increment: -[f]-
      }
    
      - user2 : {
          name: 'kingsman'
          score: 10
          increment: -[f]-
      }

next step was => to increment

User1.increment();
User2.increment();

Problem

Each time we create a new user we make space in our computer's memory for our data functions. But our functions are just copies

In Global memory:

    global memory with >
    - [function userCreator()]

    - user1 : {
        name: 'ullas'
        score: 10
        increment: -[f]- // same copy
    }

    - user2 : {
        name: 'kingsman'
        score: 10
        increment: -[f]- // same copy
    }

    - what if n number of user...
  • Each object have brand new increment function defined on them... We should be able attach multiple function on them not single function ex: login, logout, render etc...

Is there a better way? to getting single copyies of them in Global Memory


Solution 2 😮

  • Store the increment function in just one object and have the interpreter, if it doesn't find the function on user1, look up to that object to check if it's there

How to make this link ?

Prototype chain

In Global memory:

    global memory with >

    userCreator : -[f]-

    user1 : {
        name: 'ullas'
        score: 10
        => functionStore
    }

    user2 : {
        name: 'kingsman'
        score: 10
        => functionStore
    }

    function functionStore: {
        increment: -[f]-
    }

    // => this bond is called prototypal bond : chain link to or go look functionStore
    /**
     * when user doesn't find increment it goes look in function store for increment()
     */

The Code Base

function userCreator(name, score) {
  const newUser = Object.create(functionStore);

  newUser.name = name;
  newUser.score = score;

  return newUser;
}

const functionStore = {
  increment: function () {
    this.score++;
  },
  Login: function () {
    console.log("Your are loggedin");
  },
};

const user1 = userCreator("ullas", 10);
const user2 = userCreator("kingsman", 10);

user1.increment();

In the global memory

Initially:

  global memory >

  userCreator: -[f]-

  functionStore: {
      increment: -[f]-
      login: -[f]-
  }

  User1 :undefined

user1 = userCreator('ullas' 10)

which create a new execuation context

  • In a local memory

    • In thread of execution:
    newUser: Object.create(functionStore)
    => which return empty obj {}
      local Memory >
    
      - name: 'ullas'
      - score: 10
    
      - newUser: {
          name: 'ullas'
          score: 10
    
          => [hidden property:
          _prto_ which is bond to `functionStore` which we passed in Object.create(`functionStore`);
          ]
      }
    • returning => newUser object

    • return out to Gloabl Memory

      global memory >
    
      userCreator: -[f]-
    
      functionStore: {
          increment: -[f]-
          login: -[f]-
      }
    
      User1 : {
          name: 'ullas'
          score: 10
    
          => [hidden: bond _proto_ to `functionStore` for `Increment()`]
      }

Now the increment()

  • This increment() function need to be usable on what ever object we run it on.

  • We need some placeholder inside of that function increment in order to refer to that object

Or we need label thats always going to refer to that object on which we are running the function

this Fundamental rule always pointing to the relevent object to the left-hand side of the dot on which we calling the function

Creates a execuation Context

In a local memory

In the example above, user1 is to “the left of the dot” which means the this keyword is referencing the user1 object. So, it’s as if, inside the increment method, the JavaScript interpreter changes this to user1.

// this => to user1

this.score++
===> user1.score++
  • Do we have copies of increment() stored in user1 and user2 => none

Super sophisticated but not standard

solution 3, new Keyword 🤩

Embracing the Magic of the new Keyword: No Hard Work, Just Automation! 🤩

Let's witness this enchantment in action with a spellbinding code example:

const user1 = new userCreator("ullas", 10);

When we call the constructor function with new keyword in front we automate 2 things

  • Create a new user object
  • return the new user object

Creating a New User Object: By simply adding new before the function call, the new keyword conjures a brand-new user object into existence. No more manual labor required!

Returning the New User Object: The new keyword, being the generous enchantress it is, automatically returns the newly created user object. We can catch it and cherish it as our very own.

But now we need to adjust how we write the body of userCreator

  • Refer to the auto-created object?
  • Known where to put our single copies of functions?

Interlude - functions are both objects and functions

Before we continue our journey, let's explore a mesmerizing fact about functions. In JavaScript, functions possess the remarkable ability to be both objects and functions simultaneously. Mind-bending, isn't it?

function multiplyBy2(num){
    return num*2
}

multiplyBy2.stored = 5
multiplyBy2.(3) // 6

multiplyBy2.stored //5
multiplyBy2.prototype // ()

Here, we have the captivating multiplyBy2 function. It gracefully showcases its object-like qualities by sporting a stored property with a value of 5. But wait, there's more! When invoked as a function, it magically multiplies the provided number by 2. In this case, multiplyBy2(3) gracefully yields 6.

Curiously, we can access the stored property separately, giving us a surprising value of 5. Additionally, the enigmatic multiplyBy2.prototype property returns an empty parentheses pair (). Its true purpose will soon be revealed.

  • let's return to the enchanting world of the UserCreator constructor function.

Code Base

function UserCreator(name, score) {
  this.name = name;
  this.score = score;
}
UserCreator.prototype.increment = function () {
  this.score++;
};
UserCreator.prototype.login = function () {
  console.log("You are loggedin");
};

const user1 = new UserCreator("ullas", 10);
user1.increment();

In the global memory

Initially:

  global memory >

  userCreator() -[f]- //userCreator function version

  userCreator: {
      //userCreator object version
      prototype: {
          //functionStore
          increment: -[f]-
          login: -[f]-
      }
  }

  User1 :undefined

user1 = new UserCreator('ullas' 10)

which create a new execuation context

Within the realm of Local Memory, secrets are revealed:

  • In a local memory

      local Memory >
    
      - name: 'ullas'
      - score: 10
    
     // Due to the power of the `new` keyword, an empty object is created first.
     // The `this` label binds to the functionStore using the hidden _proto_ reference.
     // This becomes the object returned by `create()`.
    
      this: {
          name: 'ullas'
          score: 10
      }

    returning => this object to user1

    • return out to Gloabl Memory
      global memory >
    
      userCreator() -[f]- //userCreator function version
    
      userCreator: {
          //userCreator object version
          prototype: {
              //functionStore
              increment: -[f]-
              login: -[f]-
          }
      }
    
      User1 : {
          name: 'ullas'
          score: 10
         // Hidden _proto_ reference to userCreator.prototype, granting access to `increment()`
      }

Now the increment()

user1.increment();

Creates a execuation Context

In a local memory

// this => to user1

this.score++;
// Translates to: user1.score++

Benefits

  • Faster to Write: The new keyword automates object creation and eliminates the need for manual object instantiation. We can summon objects into existence with a single line of code. Huzzah!

  • Simplicity Reigns: Our code becomes cleaner and more intuitive. We no longer need to explicitly return the object or worry about the intricate details of object creation. The new keyword takes care of it all. How delightful!

  • Professional Practices: Despite its magical powers, using the new keyword remains a widely accepted and professional practice. Embrace this technique to impress your peers and create code that shines like a star.

Solution 4, class 🙌

The class Syntatic Sugar

class userCreator {
  constructor(name, score) {
    this.name = name;
    this.score = score;
  }
  increment() {
    this.score++;
  }
  login() {
    console.log("loggin");
  }
}
const user1 = new UserCreator("ullas", 10);
user1.increment();

In the global memory

Initially:

  global memory >

  //class
  [
      userCreator() -[f]- //userCreator function version

      userCreator: {
          //userCreator object version
          prototype: {
              // =>functionStore
              increment: -[f]-
              login: -[f]-
          }
      }
  ]

  User1 :undefined

user1 = new UserCreator('ullas' 10)

which create a new execuation context

  • In a local memory

      local Memory >
    
      - name: 'ullas'
      - score: 10
    
      // due to new it create an empty object first and 'this' label for reference bond to functionStore using _proto_
      // this = object create() returning => { }
    
      this: {
          name: 'ullas'
          score: 10
      }

    returning => this object to user1

    • return out to Gloabl Memory
      global memory >
    
      userCreator() -[f]- //userCreator function version
    
      userCreator: {
          //userCreator object version
          prototype: {
              //functionStore
              increment: -[f]-
              login: -[f]-
          }
      }
    
      User1 : {
          name: 'ullas'
          score: 10
    
          // hidden _proto_ reference to userCreator.prototype => increment()
      }

Proxy Object

  • Proxy Objects:

    • Proxy objects allow you to intercept and customize fundamental operations of target objects.
  • Creating a Proxy Object:

    let proxy = new Proxy(target, handler);
    • target: The object to be proxied.
    • handler: An object that defines trap methods for different operations on the proxy.
  • Trap Methods:

    • Trap methods are functions defined in the handler object that intercept and handle specific operations on the proxy.
  • Proxy Handler:

    • The handler object contains trap methods to customize object operations.
    • Common trap methods include get, set, apply, has, deleteProperty, etc.
  • Example: Property Access (get trap):

    let target = { name: "luffy" };
    let handler = {
      get: function (target, prop, receiver) {
        console.log(`Accessed property: ${prop}`);
        return target[prop];
      },
    };
    let proxy = new Proxy(target, handler);
    
    console.log(proxy.name); // Output: Accessed property: name, luffy
  • Example: using receiver parameter in get trap

    let target = { name: "luffy" };
    let handler = {
      get: function (target, prop, receiver) {
        if (receiver === proxy) {
          console.log(`Accessed property: ${prop}`);
          console.log("Accessed through proxy object");
        } else if (receiver instanceof Proxy) {
          console.log(`Accessed property: ${prop}`);
          console.log("Accessed through an object inheriting from the proxy");
        } else {
          console.log(`Accessed property: ${prop}`);
          console.log("Accessed through a regular object");
        }
        return target[prop];
      },
    };
    let proxy = new Proxy(target, handler);
    
    console.log(proxy.name); // Accessed property: name, Accessed through proxy object
    
    let inheritingObject = Object.create(proxy);
    console.log(inheritingObject.name); // Accessed property: name, Accessed through an object inheriting from the proxy
    
    let regularObject = { name: "zoro" };
    console.log(regularObject.name); // Accessed property: name, Accessed through a regular object
  • Example: Property Assignment (set trap):

    let target = { name: "luffy" };
    let handler = {
      set: function (target, prop, value, receiver) {
        console.log(`Set property: ${prop} = ${value}`);
        target[prop] = value;
        return true;
      },
    };
    let proxy = new Proxy(target, handler);
    
    proxy.age = 19; // Output: Set property: age = 19
    console.log(proxy.age); // Output: 19
  • Example: Property Deletion (deleteProperty trap):

    let target = { name: "luffy", age: 19 };
    let handler = {
      deleteProperty: function (target, prop) {
        console.log(`Deleted property: ${prop}`);
        delete target[prop];
        return true;
      },
    };
    let proxy = new Proxy(target, handler);
    
    delete proxy.age; // Output: Deleted property: age
    console.log(proxy.age); // Output: undefined
  • Example: Prohibit Property Deletion (deleteProperty trap):

    let target = { name: "luffy", age: 30 };
    
    let handler = {
      deleteProperty(target, prop) {
        throw new Error(`Deleting property '${prop}' is prohibited.`);
      },
    };
    
    let proxy = new Proxy(target, handler);
    
    console.log(proxy.name); // Output: luffy
    
    delete proxy.name; // Throws an error
    
    console.log(proxy.name); // Output: luffy (property still exists)
  • Example: Validation and Security:

    let user = { name: "luffy", isAdmin: false };
    let handler = {
      get: function (target, prop) {
        if (prop === "isAdmin") {
          throw new Error("Unauthorized access");
        }
        return target[prop];
      },
    };
    let proxy = new Proxy(user, handler);
    
    console.log(proxy.name); // Output: luffy
    console.log(proxy.isAdmin); // Throws an error: Unauthorized access
  • Example: Array Manipulation (apply trap):

    let list = [1, 2, 3];
    let handler = {
      apply: function (target, thisArg, args) {
        console.log(`Called with arguments: ${args}`);
        return target.apply(thisArg, args);
      },
    };
    let proxy = new Proxy(Array.prototype.push, handler);
    
    proxy.call(list, 4, 5); // Output: Called with arguments: 4,5
    console.log(list); // Output: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]